• Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) must be initiated as soon as possible, ideally within 2 hours, and preferably within 24 hours of exposure. However, the period during which PEP is most efficacious is often said to be within 72 hours of exposure.
  • Most exposures have only a low risk of HIV transmission even in the absence of PEP.
  • PEP given to HIV-negative people reduces likelihood of HIV seroconversion by approximately 80%.
  • Duration of treatment is 28 days.
  • New antiretroviral treatment regimens for PEP offer low risk of toxicity.
  • There is an absence of randomized controlled studies evaluating PEP.

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