Usually a self-limiting infection characterized by fever, severe joint pain, and rash.
Most patients fully recover, but some develop chronic joint disease characterized by polyarthritis and systemic manifestations that may last for months or years and may resemble rheumatoid arthritis or a seronegative spondyloarthropathy.
Has a global distribution, thanks to a genetic change enabling the virus to be transmitted by Aedes albopictus (a more widespread Aedes vector), as well as A aegypti. Locally acquired cases have been reported in the US and Europe.
Diagnosis is based on clinical manifestations and epidemiologic clues. Confirmation is via serologic detection of antibodies.
It is important to distinguish from dengue fever and Zika virus infection, which are transmitted by the same vector. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) can be used to determine if a patient is infected with chikungunya, Zika, or dengue virus in one test. Coinfection may occur.
There is no specific vaccine or treatment. Avoidance of mosquito bites is the best method of prevention.