- Facial pain syndrome in the distribution of ≥1 divisions of the trigeminal nerve.
- Diagnosis is clinical, with a history of paroxysms of sharp, stabbing, intense pain lasting up to 2 minutes.
- First-line therapy is medical, to which the majority of patients are partially responsive.
- Surgical/ablative therapies are reserved for refractory cases.
- Ablative therapies can cause facial sensory loss and are associated with a high recurrence rate; however, they are relatively noninvasive and carry minimal risk of severe morbidity/mortality.
- Microvascular decompression has few long-term sequelae and well-established efficacy but has a potential risk of major morbidity.
- More research on neurostimulation is needed to define its role in the treatment of trigeminal pain.