• Obstruction of blood flow across the aortic valve due to aortic calcification.
  • Presentation includes shortness of breath with exertion, angina, or syncope.
  • Characteristic murmur is systolic, mid-to-late peaking with a crescendo-decrescendo pattern, and radiates to the carotids.
  • Doppler echo is essential to the diagnosis and will show a pressure gradient across the stenotic aortic valve.
  • Surgical aortic valve replacement has been the only effective therapy for aortic stenosis for over 50 years. However, with the advent of transcatheter valve therapies, patients and physicians have more options.
  • Following valve replacement, patients are subject to the complications of prosthetic valves.

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